What is El Nino climate?
EL Nino is a climate phenomenon that occurs in the tropical Pacific Ocean. It is characterized by a sustained period of warming of the sea surface temperatures, which has significant impacts on global weather patterns. El Niño events typically last for about one to two years and can occur irregularly every two to seven years.
El Niño conditions have developed over the equatorial Pacific Ocean, leading to concerns over extreme weather events worldwide and a weak monsoon in India. The National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has indicated that El Niño conditions are expected to gradually strengthen into the winter.
Historically, moderate to strong El Niño conditions during the fall and winter months have resulted in wetter-than-average weather from southern California to the Gulf Coast, while drier-than-average climates are often observed in the Pacific Northwest and the Ohio Valley.
How it is going to affect India?
This year, record-breaking average sea surface temperatures (SSTs) have been recorded, surpassing the previous year’s record. The impact of El Niño on India is expected to lead to a delayed and weak monsoon season, with drier conditions predicted for June. The India Meteorological Department has suggested that the northwest region of India could experience below-normal rainfall during the June-September season due to El Niño.
El Niño is a climatic event characterized by warmer-than-average SSTs in the central and eastern Pacific Ocean near the equator. It tends to occur every 2-7 years on average and can have global climate impacts. Depending on its strength, El Niño can increase the risk of heavy rainfall and droughts in various locations around the world. The impacts of El Niño can be exacerbated or mitigated by climate change.
The anticipated persistence of El Niño has also influenced the 2023 Atlantic and Eastern Pacific Hurricane Outlooks issued by NOAA. Additionally, the World Meteorological Organization has stated that there is a likelihood of annual global surface temperatures temporarily exceeding 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels for at least one of the next five years, with El Niño and the climate crisis contributing to the temperature rise.