THE North East India
THE North East India comprises of the 7 states which were controlled by the British after the treaty of Yandaboo in 1826 this ensured as the British had the port of Chittagong in its control which restricted a lot of trade for the Burmese kingdom and this also forced the Burmese to undergo an armed conflict in the region which result in the treaty after the Burmese general Maha Bandula was killed in MARCH -1825 while defending the Danubyu city courageously in the first Anglo-Burmese war and also which resulted in the further affairs which also ensured the British taking control over the region of ASSAM.
Moreover, further developments in the history and also the independence of India ensured the Amalgamation of all the erst while states of the Burmese kingdom and other subkingdoms such as Ahom, Nagas, Mishmi, Bodo etc into the union of India which was really a very controversial affair as all these ethnically connected tribes as they were artificially separated through the borders of Burma and India and some of the kingdoms who were still under the kingdoms were subsumed such as Sikkim in 1975.
Presently the NORTH EAST consist of 7 seven states:-
- Arunachal Pradesh
Now each of its border is connected with 4 different countries which actually poses as a huge security threat in terms of various parameter such as Demographic, Territorial, Internal security and much more.
For eg : – Look at the state of ARUNCHAL PRADESH, surrounded by China at one side and Myanmar’s state of KACHIN at the other side wherein the state faces constant trouble at the Diphu Pass at the Tawang area at the border and Myanmar’s Internal security disturbance also prove to be a problem at the Area (Rifles, 2020)
Assam border control problem
Moreover, States like Assam constantly face border control problem at the Karim Ganj district which is a huge Demographic Menace in the region caused by various illegal Bangladeshi’s Entering the Indian soil. Similarly, the States of Manipur and Nagaland face the similar issue from the bordering states of Myanmar which has a direct connect from the SAGAING, KACHIN and CHIN State.
But, what is the real cause of Internal Insurgency which plagues India and its North-East ?
So upon reading about the entire internal dynamics of all these states and even in the border of Myanmar with respect to the History, Cultural dynamics, Demography and Borders. We zero down the core issues of insurgency terms of the following: –
- Artificial separation of the Ethnic Tribes of the North East by the Britisher’s by the Delimitation of Burma in 1937 for Weakening of Burmese Nationalism and thus creating wider problems.
- Ethnic Border Tension at both of the States in Nagaland and Manipur.(Rifles, 2020)
- Lack of Economic and trade connectivity at the Border thus giving a huge space for Poverty and thus a rise to all illicit activities such as Smuggling of Precious stones, Animal Products Drugs and Opium from the Golden Triangle Countries (Laos, Cambodia, Myanmar and Vietnam).(Marshall, Prisoners Of Geography, 2016)
- Demographic Change of North East which are giving a continuous rise to Cultural Insecurities for the people which are thus pushing them to take the alternate path of Insurgency.
- Lack of Government Proactivity to actually tackle such issues and thus strengthen the cause for South East Asia and policies such “Act East Policy”.
We all can write about the various Insurgencies and groups in the areas but , the fact is unless and until the following core issues are not resolved and corrected the Insurgencies in the region cannot be resolved. However, since 2010 and 2014 the GOI and Myanmar has laid specially emphasis on the core issues and led the renewed focused in the development of the region.
Initiatives such as the Free Move Regime Agreement of 2010 and Land Border Crossing Agreement of 2018 has significantly reduced all the following cultural insecurities of the Tribal North-East population and has worked positively in reducing the border insecurities in the Areas thus strengthening friendly relations by facilitating the entry and exit of the nationals of the two countries as well as to promote economic activities. The L.B.C.A 2018 Has brought various sister steps in the direction:-
Road and Rail Networks:
Kaladan Multi model transit transport project (KMMTTP)
Asian Trilateral Highway (ATH1)
Tinsukia- Myitkyina Railway
India- Myanmar- Thailand
Motor Vehicle Crossing Agreement and Mandalay- Bodhgaya cultural corridor.
Preferential Trade and Trade and Tourism Agreement with Myanmar
Improvement of Security mechanism for both of the forces of the respective countries due to strengthening provision of the Land Border agreement thus providing with 2 Land customs Stations at Moreh (Manipur) and CHAMPAI (MIZORAM):- IMBEX(Indo-Myanmar Border Exercise) has also proved a tool for border cooperation between the Tatmadaw and the Indian Army.
Another thing to ensure the reduction of insurgencies in the region is to reduce the hostilities in the region North- East states and ensure the cultural integration of the above states by the use of several provision such as the NRC which will maintain the tribal demography in the region and ensure that the interest of the people in the region are protected for the same, resulting this the Government of India under the present leadership held various proactive negotiations with the conflicting factions and Demilitarization of the Insurgents and ensuring their political representations. (Tietze, 1993)
A report from South Asian Terrorism Portal says:
“ The Union Ministry of Home Affairs (UMHA) in a release dated March 31, 2022, announced,
… now AFSPA [Armed Forces Special Powers Act] is being removed with effect from 01.04.2022 [April 1, 2022] completely from 23 districts and partially from 1 district of Assam… 15 police station areas of 6 districts of Manipur will be excluded from the Disturbed Area Notification [under AFSPA] with effect from 01.04.2022… The Disturbed Area Notification is being withdrawn from 15 police stations in 7 districts in Nagaland with effect from 01.04.2022.”.
The Core Crux is to “Ensure the Maximum security with the minimal military presence in the terms of ASFPA and thus allowing the North East states living peacefully without insecurities.”.
Moreover, all the South East Asian states bordering India such as: – Bangladesh & Myanmar have to work in an integrated direction in this manner so as to ensure the peace in this very region and thus ensuring a Solution in this region against the Insurgencies and way for powering the growth engine in the SAARC countries.
The respective governments in the region have to work upon eliminating the insecurities of the region and the people in general by using the various instruments at their disposal be it the Political, Cultural, Geographical etc by the root of development and integration with the mainstream masses.(Rifles, 2020)